Discipline verwarren met bureaucratie geeft aan dat je efficiënt en effectief zijn hebt vervangen door een focus op het proces. Voor agile projecten, waar op voorhand weinig bekend is over de benodigde oplossing voor het gegeven probleem, zijn verschillende aanpakken voorhanden. Vaak wordt de verkeerde keuze gemaakt, of slaafs de bedrijfsstandaard gevolgd.
- iterative, met IBM Rational Unified Process en Prototyping als bekende aanpakken
- adaptive, met Scrum, DSDM Atern en Adaptive Software Development (ASD) als bekende aanpakken. Zelf introduceert Wysocki Adaptive Project Framework (APF)
Opstart-, initiatie- en afsluitingsfase in een agile projectmanagement aanpak
Kenmerken adaptive project management lifecycle
- Iteratieve structuur
- Just-in-time planning
- Critical mission projects
- Streven naar verandering via leren en ontdekken
- Does not waste time on non-value-added work
- Avoids all management issues processing scope change requests
- Does not waste time planning uncertainty
- Provides maximum business value within the given time and cost constraints
- Must have meaningful client involvement
- Cannot identify exactly what will be delivered at the end of the project
In the Scrum Adaptive PMLC model, there is no project manager. The development team is a self-organized team. If you are more comfortable having a named project manager, the closest in a Scrum project is the client. A client is called the Product Owner in a Scrum project. Each Scrum project has a Scrum Master assigned to the project.
Adaptive Project Framework
- Client-focused — The phrases “walk in the shoes of the client” and “always do what is right for the client” express what it means to be client-focused.
- Client-driven — Engage the client in every way that you can. You want them to have significant meaningful involvement, to have the sense that they are determining the direction that the project is taking. Remember, it’s their money, and they have the right to choose how it will be spent. At the extreme, this would mean having the client take on the role and responsibilities of the project manager. This will not happen very often, but you should look for opportunities to make it happen.
- Incremental results early and often — Deliver a working application to the client as early as possible, especially in cases where the real solution for the client has not yet surfaced despite all best efforts. The functionality of the first iteration of the application may be very limited, but it should deliver business value and give the client an early feel for what the final deliverables will be. Giving the client an opportunity to work with something concrete is always better than asking them to react to some vague concept described in a complex specification document. If you can put something in front of the client early in the project and repeat it often, they get a sense of belonging and ownership — they become engaged in the project.
- Continuous questioning and introspection — When you build a solution iteratively, you have more chances for creativity and more opportunity to adjust as better and more valuable features or functions are discovered. The client and the project team should always be looking for improvements in the solution or the functionality offered both as the cycle build proceeds and as they look back at previous cycles.
- Change is progress to a better solution — One of my colleagues is often heard saying: “You’re always smarter tomorrow than you are today.” He is referring to improving estimates over time, but his comment applies to APF as well. APF starts with the client and you agreeing on a definition of what is needed and what will be delivered. Your efforts will be good and in earnest, but remember that all you have done to this point is take the best guess you can as to what will be done.
- Don’t speculate on the future — Someone once said: “If you don’t know the future, why waste time planning for it?” APF strips out all non-value-added work. Planning is done just in time. It focuses on what is known about the solution, not on what is not known.
APF heeft 5 fasen: Version Scope, Cycle Plan, Cycle Build, Client Checkpoint, and Post-Version Review. Het biedt daarmee meer houvast voor organisaties die in hun projecten adaptief willen werken dan een kale Scrum gids. Ben je benieuwd geworden, schaf dan Effective Project Management aan om je verder te verdiepen.